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Алексей Николаевич Апухтин

Алексей Николаевич Апухтин

Поэт-лирик, эпигон «светского» стиля, один из поздних представителей дворянства в русской литературе. Прославился стихами о любви, многие из которых положены на музыку.

Детство и отрочество

Алексей Николаевич родился 15 (27 по н. с.) ноября 1840  года в небогатой дворянской семье. Место рождения – г. Болхов Орловской губернии. Отец будущего поэта, Николай Фёдорович, был отставным майором, мать, Мария Андреевна, в девичестве Желябужская – домохозяйкой. Детские годы мальчик провёл в отцовском родовом имении – деревне Павлодар, где получил превосходное домашнее образование. Первой учительницей юного Алексея стала мать, которая привила ему любовь к поэзии. Хотя в семье было ещё трое сыновей, Мария Андреевна питала к своему первенцу особую нежность, всячески баловала его и ни в чем не отказывала.

Несмотря на скромное материальное положение Апухтины изыскали возможность определить старшего сына в одно из лучших учебных заведений страны – в Петербургское училище правоведения. На новое место юноша прибыл в 1852 году. Надежды родителей оправдались: Алексей зарекомендовал себя как способный ученик (лучший в классе), имел отличные оценки по всем дисциплинам, был одним из редакторов журнала «Училищный вестник». Учителя не скупились на похвалы для талантливого подопечного. Покровитель заведения, герцог Ольденбургский, нещадно коверкая фамилию воспитанника заявлял: «Если в лицее был Пушкин, то у нас есть Апущин.»

В училище Апухтин подружился с П. И. Чайковским. Друзья сидели за одной партой, подолгу разговаривали обо всем на свете, делились планами на будущее и вместе бегали курить. Леля (юношеское прозвище поэта), будучи ближайшим другом, заметно повлиял на литературные вкусы и убеждения будущего композитора. 

Ночи бессонные…

Литературный дебют А. Н. Апухтина состоялся в 1854 году: по ходатайству тогдашнего директора училища Языкова журнал «Русский инвалид» разместил стихотворение 14-летнего поэта «Эпаминонд», посвященное памяти героя Севастополя адмирала В. А. Корнилова. Спустя год на страницах того же издания публикуется новое стихотворение А. Н. Апухтина – «Подражание Арабскому».

В 1859 году, блестяще окончив Императорское училище правоведения с золотой медалью, Алексей Николаевич устраивается в министерство юстиции, в один департамент с П. И. Чайковским. В том же году, омраченный кончиной матери, Апухтин становится полноправным членом литературного сообщества, разместив в «Современнике» под заголовком «Деревенские очерки» ряд стихотворений, о которых весьма лестно отзывались И. С. Тургенев, А. А. Фет и Н. А. Некрасов.

Службой в министерстве поэт почти не интересуется. Сутками напролет он прожигает жизнь в компании Чайковского, его сёстры Александры и других представителей «золотой молодёжи». К своему творчеству Апухтин относится легко и непринужденно, стихи рождаются у него сами собой. В 1860 году поэт под псевдонимом Сысой Сысоев выступает в журналах демократического толка с едкими эпиграммами и пародиями.
Вскоре в литературной деятельности Алексея Николаевича наступает кризис. В 1862 году он оставляет службу и отправляется в орловскую деревню для службы чиновником особых поручений при местном генерал-губернаторе.

Возвращение в Петербург

В 1864 году Апухтин возвращается в Петербург, но с выходом на литературную «…арену, загроможденную подлостями, доносами и …семинаристами…» не торопится. Номинально причисленный к министерству внутренних дел поэт вновь предается радостям светской жизни, тщательно оберегая себя от всяческого рода потрясений. Его, великолепного чтеца и декламатора, остряка и весельчака охотно принимают в лучших домах столицы. Вечера Апухтин проводит за карточной игрой в английском клубе, иногда выезжает по делам службы заграницу.

После семилетнего перерыва, в 1868 году, в рукописных экземплярах появляется ряд стихотворных произведений Алексея Николаевича («Ниобея», «Реквием», «Год в монастыре», «Старая любовь», «Моление о чаше», «Ночи безумные»). В 1872 году на страницах «Гражданина» без подписи печатается апухтинское стихотворение «Недостроенный памятник». С 1884 года поэт размещает свои произведения в «Русской мысли», «Вестнике Европы», «Северном вестнике».

В 1886 году выходит долгожданный сборник сочинений А. Н. Апухтина «Стихотворения», имевший большой успех у широкой читательской публики. Поэзии Алексея Николаевича не свойственны политическая окраска и злободневность, будто поэта не интересует то, что выходит за его личные рамки. Стихи Апухтина пронизаны тихим томлением, тоской о разбитой любви, меланхолическими настроениями стареющего скептика. Иногда поэт обращается к историческим и патриотическим темам, но лирика его особенно сильна.

Личная жизнь

В браке Апухтин никогда не состоял и детей не имел. Остроумный импровизатор и шутник, женоподобный завсегдатай светских салонов, он вел сибаритский образ жизни убеждённого холостяка. С женщинами был обходителен и любезен, но не более того.

Последние годы жизни

К концу жизни Апухтин становится затворником. Болезни совсем одолели его. Начавшееся ещё в 70– х годах болезненные ожирение за 10 лет успело достичь колоссальных размеров и по словам поэта довело его «до настоящего убожества». При людях Алексей Николаевич не стесняется иронизировать над своей тучной фигурой, но наедине с самим собой тяжело страдает по поводу несовершенства собственной внешности.

За 2 года до смерти Апухтин заболел водянкой и вовсе перестал выходить на улицу, предпочитая проводить большую часть времени лёжа на диване. Даже по дому он теперь передвигается с великим трудом. Все чаще поэта терзают неудовлетворенность и осознание приближающейся смерти. Материальные затруднения только усугубляют неважное самочувствие Алексея Николаевича. Чтобы хоть как-то свести концы с концами, Апухтин занимается переводами, иногда прибегает к займам. Уже на исходе жизни поэт неожиданно для всех решает попробовать себя в прозе. Произведения «Дневник Павлика Дольского», «Архив графини Д.», «Между жизнью и смертью» «Князь Таврический», высоко оцененные современниками, были опубликованы уже после смерти автора.

17 августа (29 по н. с.), в возрасте 53 лет, Алексей Апухтин скончался. Его похоронили в Санкт-Петербурге, на Никольском кладбище. П. И. Чайковский на церемонии прощания не присутствовал, хотя тяжело воспринял известие о кончине друга юности. В письме к своему племяннику Л. В. Давыдову композитор делился своими переживаниями: «В ту минуту, как я пишу это, Лелю Апухтина отпевают!!! Хоть и не неожиданна его смерть, а все жутко и больно. Когда-то это был мой ближайший приятель…».

В 1956 году останки поэта были перезахоронены на Литераторских мостках Волховского кладбища.

Опубликовано:27.10.2020mkp

Алексей Николаевич Апухтин: 108 комментариев

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